The device contains a WATCHDOG and clock monitor. The
WATCHDOG is designed to detect the user program getting
stuck in infinite loops resulting in loss of program control or
“runaway” programs. The Clock Monitor is used to detect the
absence of a clock or a very slow clock below a specified
rate on the CKI pin.
The WATCHDOG consists of two independent logic blocks:
WD UPPER and WD LOWER. WD UPPER establishes the
upper limit on the service window and WD LOWER defines
the lower limit of the service window.
Servicing the WATCHDOG consists of writing a specific
value to a WATCHDOG Service Register named WDSVR
which is memory mapped in the RAM. This value is com-
posed of three fields, consisting of a 2-bit Window Select, a
5-bit Key Data field, and the 1-bit Clock Monitor Select field.
Table 6 shows the WDSVR register.
TABLE 6. WATCHDOG Service Register (WDSVR)
The lower limit of the service window is fixed at 2048 instruc-
tion cycles. Bits 7 and 6 of the WDSVR register allow the
user to pick an upper limit of the service window.
Table 7 shows the four possible combinations of lower and
upper limits for the WATCHDOG service window. This flex-
ibility in choosing the WATCHDOG service window prevents
any undue burden on the user software.
Bits 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 of the WDSVR register represent the
5-bit Key Data field. The key data is fixed at 01100. Bit 0 of
the WDSVR Register is the Clock Monitor Select bit.
TABLE 7. WATCHDOG Service Window Select
WDSVR WDSVR Clock
Bit 7 Bit 6 Monitor
2048–8k tC Cycles
2048–16k tC Cycles
2048–32k tC Cycles
2048–64k tC Cycles
Clock Monitor Disabled
Clock Monitor Enabled
The Clock Monitor aboard the device can be selected or de-
selected under program control. The Clock Monitor is guar-
anteed not to reject the clock if the instruction cycle clock (1/
tc) is greater or equal to 10 kHz. This equates to a clock input
rate on CKI of greater or equal to 100 kHz.
The WATCHDOG and Clock Monitor are disabled during re-
set. The device comes out of reset with the WATCHDOG
armed, the WATCHDOG Window Select bits (bits 6, 7 of the
WDSVR Register) set, and the Clock Monitor bit (bit 0 of the
WDSVR Register) enabled. Thus, a Clock Monitor error will
occur after coming out of reset, if the instruction cycle clock
frequency has not reached a minimum specified value, in-
cluding the case where the oscillator fails to start.
The WDSVR register can be written to only once after reset
and the key data (bits 5 through 1 of the WDSVR Register)
must match to be a valid write. This write to the WDSVR reg-
ister involves two irrevocable choices: (i) the selection of the
WATCHDOG service window (ii) enabling or disabling of the
Clock Monitor. Hence, the first write to WDSVR Register in-
volves selecting or deselecting the Clock Monitor, select the
WATCHDOG service window and match the WATCHDOG
key data. Subsequent writes to the WDSVR register will
compare the value being written by the user to the WATCH-
DOG service window value and the key data (bits 7 through
1) in the WDSVR Register. Table 8 shows the sequence of
events that can occur.
The user must service the WATCHDOG at least once before
the upper limit of the service window expires. The WATCH-
DOG may not be serviced more than once in every lower
limit of the service window. The user may service the
WATCHDOG as many times as wished in the time period be-
tween the lower and upper limits of the service window. The
first write to the WDSVR Register is also counted as a
The WATCHDOG has an output pin associated with it. This
is the WDOUT pin, on pin 1 of the port G. WDOUT is active
low. The WDOUT pin is in the high impedance state in the in-
active state. Upon triggering the WATCHDOG, the logic will
pull the WDOUT (G1) pin low for an additional 16 tc–32 tc
cycles after the signal level on WDOUT pin goes below the
lower Schmitt trigger threshold. After this delay, the device
will stop forcing the WDOUT output low.
The WATCHDOG service window will restart when the WD-
OUT pin goes high. It is recommended that the user tie the
WDOUT pin back to VCC through a resistor in order to pull
A WATCHDOG service while the WDOUT signal is active will
be ignored. The state of the WDOUT pin is not guaranteed
on reset, but if it powers up low then the WATCHDOG will
time out and WDOUT will enter high impedance state.
The Clock Monitor forces the G1 pin low upon detecting a
clock frequency error. The Clock Monitor error will continue
until the clock frequency has reached the minimum specified
value, after which the G1 output will enter the high imped-
ance TRI-STATE mode following 16 tc–32 tc clock cycles.
The Clock Monitor generates a continual Clock Monitor error
if the oscillator fails to start, or fails to reach the minimum
specified frequency. The specification for the Clock Monitor
is as follows:
1/tc > 10 kHz — No clock rejection.
1/tc < 10 Hz — Guaranteed clock rejection.
WATCHDOG AND CLOCK MONITOR SUMMARY
The following salient points regarding the WATCHDOG and
CLOCK MONITOR should be noted:
• Both the WATCHDOG and CLOCK MONITOR detector
circuits are inhibited during RESET.
• Following RESET, the WATCHDOG and CLOCK MONI-
TOR are both enabled, with the WATCHDOG having he
maximum service window selected.
• The WATCHDOG service window and CLOCK MONI-
TOR enable/disable option can only be changed once,
during the initial WATCHDOG service following RESET.