LM158, LM158A, LM258, LM258A
LM358, LM358A, LM2904, LM2904V
SLOS068U – JUNE 1976 – REVISED JANUARY 2017
Typical Application (continued)
9.2.3 Application Curve
Figure 14. Input and Output Voltages of the Inverting Amplifier
10 Power Supply Recommendations
Supply voltages larger than 32 V for a single supply (26 V for the LM2904), or outside
the range of ±16 V for a dual supply (±13 V for the LM2904) can permanently damage
the device (see the Absolute Maximum Ratings).
Place 0.1-μF bypass capacitors close to the power-supply pins to reduce errors coupling in from noisy or high
impedance power supplies. For more detailed information on bypass capacitor placement, refer to the Layout.
11.1 Layout Guidelines
For best operational performance of the device, use good PCB layout practices, including:
• Noise can propagate into analog circuitry through the power pins of the circuit as a whole, as well as the
operational amplifier. Bypass capacitors are used to reduce the coupled noise by providing low impedance
power sources local to the analog circuitry.
– Connect low-ESR, 0.1-μF ceramic bypass capacitors between each supply pin and ground, placed as
close to the device as possible. A single bypass capacitor from V+ to ground is applicable for single
• Separate grounding for analog and digital portions of circuitry is one of the simplest and most-effective
methods of noise suppression. One or more layers on multilayer PCBs are usually devoted to ground planes.
A ground plane helps distribute heat and reduces EMI noise pickup. Make sure to physically separate digital
and analog grounds, paying attention to the flow of the ground current.
• To reduce parasitic coupling, run the input traces as far away from the supply or output traces as possible. If
it is not possible to keep them separate, it is much better to cross the sensitive trace perpendicular as
opposed to in parallel with the noisy trace.
• Place the external components as close to the device as possible. Keeping RF and RG close to the inverting
input minimizes parasitic capacitance, as shown in Layout Examples.
• Keep the length of input traces as short as possible. Always remember that the input traces are the most
sensitive part of the circuit.
• Consider a driven, low-impedance guard ring around the critical traces. A guard ring can significantly reduce
leakage currents from nearby traces that are at different potentials.
Copyright © 1976–2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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