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LM2748MTC View Datasheet(PDF) - National ->Texas Instruments

Part NameLM2748MTC National-Semiconductor
National ->Texas Instruments National-Semiconductor
DescriptionSynchronous Buck Controller with Pre-bias Startup, and Optional Clock Synchronization
LM2748MTC Datasheet PDF : 23 Pages
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Application Information (Continued)
In this example, in order to maintain a 2% peak-to-peak
output voltage ripple and a 40% peak-to-peak inductor cur-
rent ripple, the required maximum ESR is 20 m. The Sanyo
4SP560M electrolytic capacitor will give an equivalent ESR
of 14 m. The capacitance of 560 µF is enough to supply
energy even to meet severe load transient demands.
MOSFETs
Selection of the power MOSFETs is governed by a trade-off
between cost, size, and efficiency. One method is to deter-
mine the maximum cost that can be endured, and then
select the most efficient device that fits that price. Breaking
down the losses in the high-side and low-side MOSFETs and
then creating spreadsheets is one way to determine relative
efficiencies between different MOSFETs. Good correlation
between the prediction and the bench result is not guaran-
teed, however. Single-channel buck regulators that use a
controller IC and discrete MOSFETs tend to be most efficient
for output currents of 2 to 10A.
Losses in the high-side MOSFET can be broken down into
conduction loss, gate charging loss, and switching loss.
Conduction, or I2R loss, is approximately:
PC = D (IO2 x RDSON-HI x 1.3)
(High-Side MOSFET)
PC = (1 - D) x (IO2 x RDSON-LO x 1.3)
(Low-Side MOSFET)
In the above equations the factor 1.3 accounts for the in-
crease in MOSFET RDSON due to heating. Alternatively, the
1.3 can be ignored and the RDSON of the MOSFET estimated
using the RDSON Vs. Temperature curves in the MOSFET
datasheets.
Gate charging loss results from the current driving the gate
capacitance of the power MOSFETs, and is approximated
as:
PGC = n x (VDD) x QG x fSW
where ‘n’ is the number of MOSFETs (if multiple devices
have been placed in parallel), VDD is the driving voltage (see
MOSFET Gate Drivers section) and QGS is the gate charge
of the MOSFET. If different types of MOSFETs are used, the
‘n’ term can be ignored and their gate charges simply
summed to form a cumulative QG. Gate charge loss differs
from conduction and switching losses in that the actual
dissipation occurs in the LM2745/8, and not in the MOSFET
itself.
Switching loss occurs during the brief transition period as the
high-side MOSFET turns on and off, during which both cur-
rent and voltage are present in the channel of the MOSFET.
It can be approximated as:
PSW = 0.5 x VIN x IO x (tr + tf) x fSW
where tr and tf are the rise and fall times of the MOSFET.
Switching loss occurs in the high-side MOSFET only.
For this example, the maximum drain-to-source voltage ap-
plied to either MOSFET is 3.6V. The maximum drive voltage
at the gate of the high-side MOSFET is 3.1V, and the maxi-
mum drive voltage for the low-side MOSFET is 3.3V. Due to
the low drive voltages in this example, a MOSFET that turns
on fully with 3.1V of gate drive is needed. For designs of 5A
and under, dual MOSFETs in SO-8 provide a good trade-off
between size, cost, and efficiency.
Support Components
CIN2 - A small (0.1 to 1 µF) ceramic capacitor should be
placed as close as possible to the drain of the high-side
MOSFET and source of the low-side MOSFET (dual MOS-
FETs make this easy). This capacitor should be X5R type
dielectric or better.
RCC, CCC- These are standard filter components designed to
ensure smooth DC voltage for the chip supply. RCC should
be 1 to 10. CCC should 1 µF, X5R type or better.
CBOOT- Bootstrap capacitor, typically 100 nF.
RPULL-UP – This is a standard pull-up resistor for the open-
drain power good signal (PWGD). The recommended value
is 100 kconnected to VCC. If this feature is not necessary,
the resistor can be omitted.
D1 - A small Schottky diode should be used for the bootstrap.
It allows for a minimum drop for both high and low-side
drivers. The MBR0520 or BAT54 work well in most designs.
RCS - Resistor used to set the current limit. Since the design
calls for a peak current magnitude (IOUT + (0.5 x IOUT)) of
4.8A, a safe setting would be 6A. (This is below the satura-
tion current of the output inductor, which is 7A.) Following the
equation from the Current Limit section, a 1.3 kresistor
should be used.
RFADJ - This resistor is used to set the switching frequency of
the chip. The resistor value is approximated from the Fre-
quency vs Frequency Adjust Resistor curve in the Typical
Performance Characteristics section. For 300 kHz operation,
a 100 kresistor should be used.
CSS - The soft-start capacitor depends on the user require-
ments and is calculated based on the equation given in the
section titled START UP/SOFT-START. Therefore, for a 7 ms
delay, a 12 nF capacitor is suitable.
Control Loop Compensation
The LM2745/8 uses voltage-mode (‘VM’) PWM control to
correct changes in output voltage due to line and load tran-
sients. VM requires careful small signal compensation of the
control loop for achieving high bandwidth and good phase
margin.
The control loop is comprised of two parts. The first is the
power stage, which consists of the duty cycle modulator,
output inductor, output capacitor, and load. The second part
is the error amplifier, which for the LM2745/8 is a 9 MHz
op-amp used in the classic inverting configuration. Figure 13
shows the regulator and control loop components.
15
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DESCRIPTION
The LM2745/8 are high-speed synchronous buck regulator controllers with an accurate feedback voltage accuracy of ±1.5%. It can provide simple down conversion to output voltages as low as 0.6V. Though the control sections of the IC are rated for 3 to 6V, the driver sections are designed to accept input supply rails as high as 14V. The use of adaptive non-overlapping MOSFET gate drivers helps avoid potential shoot-through problems while maintaining high efficiency. The IC is designed for the more cost effective option of driving only N-channel MOSFETs in both the high-side and low-side positions. It senses the low-side switch voltage drop for providing a simple, adjustable current limit.
The LM2745/8 features a fixed-frequency voltage-mode PWM control architecture which is adjustable from 50 kHz to 1 MHz with one external resistor. In addition, the LM2745 also allows the switching frequency to be synchronized to an external clock signal over the range of 250 kHz to 1 MHz. This wide range of switching frequency gives the power supply designer the flexibility to make better tradeoffs between component size, cost and efficiency.

FEATURES
• Switching Frequency from 50 kHz to 1 MHz
• Switching Frequency Synchronize Range 250 kHz to 1 MHz (LM2745 Only)
• Startup with a Pre-biased Output Load
• Power Stage Input Voltage from 1V to 14V
• Control Stage Input Voltage from 3V to 6V
• Output Voltage Adjustable Down to 0.6V
• Power Good Flag and Shutdown
• Output Overvoltage and Undervoltage Detection
• ±1.5% Feedback Voltage Accuracy Over Temperature
• Low-side Adjustable Current Sensing
• Adjustable Soft-start
• Tracking and Sequencing with Shutdown and Soft Start Pins
• TSSOP-14 Package

APPLICATIONS
• Down Conversion from 3.3V
• Cable Modem, DSL and ADSL
• Laser Jet and Ink Jet Printers
• Low Voltage Power Modules
• DSP, ASIC, Core and I/O

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