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LM106H-MLS View Datasheet(PDF) - National ->Texas Instruments

Part NameDescriptionManufacturer
LM106H-MLS Voltage Comparator National-Semiconductor
National ->Texas Instruments National-Semiconductor
LM106H-MLS Datasheet PDF : 34 Pages
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Application Hints
CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES FOR AVOIDING
OSCILLATIONS IN COMPARATOR APPLICATIONS
When a high-speed comparator such as the LM111 is used
with fast input signals and low source impedances, the output
response will normally be fast and stable, assuming that the
power supplies have been bypassed (with 0.1 μF disc capac-
itors), and that the output signal is routed well away from the
inputs (pins 2 and 3) and also away from pins 5 and 6.
However, when the input signal is a voltage ramp or a slow
sine wave, or if the signal source impedance is high (1 kΩ to
100 kΩ), the comparator may burst into oscillation near the
crossing-point. This is due to the high gain and wide band-
width of comparators like the LM111. To avoid oscillation or
instability in such a usage, several precautions are recom-
mended, as shown in Figure 1 below.
1. The trim pins (pins 5 and 6) act as unwanted auxiliary
inputs. If these pins are not connected to a trim-pot, they
should be shorted together. If they are connected to a
trim-pot, a 0.01 μF capacitor C1 between pins 5 and 6
will minimize the susceptibility to AC coupling. A smaller
capacitor is used if pin 5 is used for positive feedback as
in Figure 1.
2. Certain sources will produce a cleaner comparator
output waveform if a 100 pF to 1000 pF capacitor C2 is
connected directly across the input pins.
3. When the signal source is applied through a resistive
network, RS, it is usually advantageous to choose an RS
of substantially the same value, both for DC and for
dynamic (AC) considerations. Carbon, tin-oxide, and
metal-film resistors have all been used successfully in
comparator input circuitry. Inductive wire wound resistors
are not suitable.
4. When comparator circuits use input resistors (e.g.
summing resistors), their value and placement are
particularly important. In all cases the body of the resistor
should be close to the device or socket. In other words
there should be very little lead length or printed-circuit foil
run between comparator and resistor to radiate or pick
up signals. The same applies to capacitors, pots, etc. For
example, if RS=10 kΩ, as little as 5 inches of lead
between the resistors and the input pins can result in
oscillations that are very hard to damp. Twisting these
input leads tightly is the only (second best) alternative to
placing resistors close to the comparator.
5. Since feedback to almost any pin of a comparator can
result in oscillation, the printed-circuit layout should be
engineered thoughtfully. Preferably there should be a
ground plane under the LM111 circuitry, for example, one
side of a double-layer circuit card. Ground foil (or,
positive supply or negative supply foil) should extend
between the output and the inputs, to act as a guard. The
foil connections for the inputs should be as small and
compact as possible, and should be essentially
surrounded by ground foil on all sides, to guard against
capacitive coupling from any high-level signals (such as
the output). If pins 5 and 6 are not used, they should be
shorted together. If they are connected to a trim-pot, the
trim-pot should be located, at most, a few inches away
from the LM111, and the 0.01 μF capacitor should be
installed. If this capacitor cannot be used, a shielding
printed-circuit foil may be advisable between pins 6 and
7. The power supply bypass capacitors should be located
within a couple inches of the LM111. (Some other
comparators require the power-supply bypass to be
located immediately adjacent to the comparator.)
6. It is a standard procedure to use hysteresis (positive
feedback) around a comparator, to prevent oscillation,
and to avoid excessive noise on the output because the
comparator is a good amplifier for its own noise. In the
circuit of Figure 2, the feedback from the output to the
positive input will cause about 3 mV of hysteresis.
However, if RS is larger than 100Ω, such as 50 kΩ, it
would not be reasonable to simply increase the value of
the positive feedback resistor above 510 kΩ. The circuit
of Figure 3 could be used, but it is rather awkward. See
the notes in paragraph 7 below.
7. When both inputs of the LM111 are connected to active
signals, or if a high-impedance signal is driving the
positive input of the LM111 so that positive feedback
would be disruptive, the circuit of Figure 1 is ideal. The
positive feedback is to pin 5 (one of the offset adjustment
pins). It is sufficient to cause 1 to 2 mV hysteresis and
sharp transitions with input triangle waves from a few Hz
to hundreds of kHz. The positive-feedback signal across
the 82Ω resistor swings 240 mV below the positive
supply. This signal is centered around the nominal
voltage at pin 5, so this feedback does not add to the
VOS of the comparator. As much as 8 mV of VOS can be
trimmed out, using the 5 kΩ pot and 3 kΩ resistor as
shown.
8. These application notes apply specifically to the LM111
and are applicable to all high-speed comparators in
general, (with the exception that not all comparators have
trim pins).
19
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